The 1855 First Election District, Town of Chenango, Broome County, NY census is taken on the 21st of June. Stephen is 12 years old. His father, now written as Abraham Wilbur is 43 years old, his mother Mary, is 37, and the occupation of farmer is listed for Abraham. They have been residents for 18 years which means they settled in 1837 and noted is that they own the land. Abraham's birthplace is listed as Schenectady, and Mary's is now showing Pennsylvania. All children are born in Broome County. Both of his parents can read and write.
Stephen's older sisters, Elizabeth and Sarah, are now 17 and 15. His younger brother, Edwin, 8, is joined by another brother, Abner, 1.
Since there is a wide gap between children, there is a question if some died at birth or soon after between census taking from 1850 – 1855.